Leone Villari, Ewan Wright, Fabio Biancalana and Claudio Conti report on the possibility that all types of classical solitons may evaporate in the quantum regime. A paper in the arXiv contains the theory on the exact quantization of the nonlinear Schroedinger equation: solitons emit a blackbody radiation spectrum at a temperature given by the same formula of Hawking!

This result is intriguing. On one hand, because it represents the first theoretical prediction of the Hawking radiation in a fully nonlinear quantum field theory. The standard Hawking theory relies on the quantization of a linear field in a curved background. The theory may hence provide insights for a true quantum gravity based on the complete quantization of the Einstein-Hilbert equations.

On the other hand, the result is also important because the Hawking radiation from a quantum soliton may furnish a novel highly tunable quantum source with many possible applications.

]]>The picture below shows a pictorial representation of the Gelfand triplet, the phase space of the Time Asymmetric Quantum Mechanics

]]>In a recent manuscript in arXiv, Marco Ornigotti, Leone di Mauro Villari, Alexander Szeimeit, and Claudio Conti study propagation invariant quantum X-waves with angular momentum. The adopted representation expresses the electromagnetic field as a quantum gas of weakly interacting bosons. The resulting spatio-temporal quantized light pulses are not subject to diffraction and dispersion, and are intrinsically resilient to disturbances in propagation. Spontaneous down-conversion generates squeezed X-waves useful for quantum protocols. Surprisingly the orbital angural momentum affects the squeezing angle, and a characteristic axicon aperture for maximal squeezing exists.

There results may boost the applications in free space of quantum optical transmission and multi-level quantum protocols, and may also be relevant for novel kinds of interferometers, as satellite-based gravitational wave detectors.

]]>Marco Ornigotti, Claudio Conti, and Alexander Szameit extend to the polychromatic domain the light beams with cylindrical polarization, which have widespread applications in microscopy and spectroscopy.

These light pulses represent a fully vectorial solution of Maxwell equations, can be focused at the sub-wavelength scale and may open a number of possibilities for a new generation of imaging devices, and for free space information transmission.

The paper was published in Journal of Optics (ArXiv:1602.03317)

]]>In a paper posted in the ArXiv, Maria Chiara Braidotti, Ziad Musslimani and Claudio Conti show the way the generalized uncertainty principle, introduced for studying physics at the Planck scale, has a role in optics, and may stimulate unexpected applications for high resolution imaging and ultrafast propagation.

The picture below shows a representation of the generalized uncertainty principle (G-UP) and the difference with the standard Heisenberg principle (H-UP), further details in our paper in the ArXiv.

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Edited by A. Adamatzky and Genaro J. Martinez, the book is entitled

part of the Series on Emergence, Complexity and Computation with artistic representations from simple mathematical models at the edge of physics and biology. The book contains a contribution by C. Conti on the Enlightened Game of Life.

The picture below shows the content of the book

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There are not direct evidences of the irreversibility of decay processes, but the new quantum mechanics predicts that the decay rates are quantized.

If one observes the quantization of the decay rates, one can claim to have provided experimental support to the irreversible formulation of quantum mechanics.

In simple terms, one can claim that time-travel is not possible at the quantum level (...and also at the classical level).

Silvia Gentilini, Maria Chiara Braidotti, Giulia Marcucci, Eugenio Del Re, and Claudio Conti simulated in the laboratory one of the simplest models of the irreversible quantum mechanics, that follows an original proposal of Glauber. A laser beam emulates a quantum particle in a reversed harmonic oscillator, as a result the first experimental evidence of the quantization of decay time is reported in a paper published in Scientific Reports.

]]>This is what Andrea Ornigotti, Claudio Conti, and Alexander Szameit, discovered and published in the Physical Review Letters. An extended and generalized analysis can be found in Physical Review A.

Angular momentum of light is nowadays largely studied because you can add information to a optical beam by twisting it, or you can rotate objects by lasers with angular momentum. But if you want to transmit information, the best thing to do is using light pulses and adding to any pulse a certain amount of orbital angular momentum (OAM). For example, by using **m** levels of OAM, any single pulse can encode **m** symbols (2 symbols correspond to one bit). The shortest the pulse you use, the higher the number of symbols you can transmit in a second (the transmission rate). This approach can be used for new classical and quantum high-bit rate transmission systems in free space or in fiber.

But Ornigotti and others find out that the number of OAM bits you can store in a single pulse is actually limited by the duration of the pulse and by its carrier frequency.

The following picture shows the link between OAM units **m** and the number of optical cycles in the pulse, these two quantized observables are actually strictly related.

These findings have important outcomes in the modern multilevel transmission systems, but also reveal a novel form of spatio-temporal coupling. The latter may lead to new kinds of entanglement, which may trigger applications in Quantum Optics.

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The novel theory is based on ideas retained from Irreversible Quantum Mechanics, a novel formulation of quantum mechanics based on the so-called Rigged Hilbert Space that include explonential decaying wavefuctions.

The theory describes the shock and wave-breaking scenario beyond the limits of the usual hydrodynamic approach, and allows to derive closed forms for the degree of irreversibility. This approach also introduces the "nonlinear Gamow Vectors," a novel kind of nonlinear waves with many possible applications in nonlinear physics.

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